Mechanisms of gene regulation by transcription factors

Group leader : Y. Graba ; A. Saurin

Using Hox transcription factors as a paradigm, our group study how regulation of protein interaction controls the assembly of multiprotein complexes and how this generates specificity and diversity in gene regulation.


Gene regulation is central to developmental, evolutionary and pathological processes, and although not exclusively, relies on the activity of transcription factors that form large regulatory multiprotein complexes. Little is know about how such regulatory complexes assemble, how they negotiate chromatin and what underlies their functional specificity and diversity. Our projects aim at exploring the logic underlying the assembly and function of transcription factor complexes, to ultimately gain insights into genome regulation during development, evolution and disease.

Patterns of protein complexes assembly and gene regulation by Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML

Patterns of protein complexes assembly and gene regulation.


To apprehend the molecular bases underlying genome regulation, we focus on the function of the homedomain-containing Hox transcription factors. The importance of Hox proteins in development, evolution, stem cell and disease biology is well established. Our current understanding of their regulatory function stands for their capacity to assemble into multiprotein complexes with TALE class cofactors. This provides the bases to explore how multiprotein complex assembly generates transcriptional and functional specificity. Recent work has focused on the identification of novel protein domains within Hox proteins. Extensive in vivo functional characterisation highlighted contextual use of protein domains, with each domain participating to TALE-dependent and TALE-independent functions. This provides solid genetic and molecular bases for investigating how protein protein interactions modulate transcription factor activity and function.

Protein domains as entry points to decipher principles and mechanisms of gene regulation by the Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML

Protein domains as entry points to decipher principles and mechanisms of gene regulation.

Our conceptual framework is that functional specificity arises from mutual interaction between Hox protein domains, DNA target sequences and cofactors, yet only few of each have so far been identified. Our goal is thus to identify novel functionally important protein domains, cofactors and target sequences, and decipher how each influences the overall assembling and activity of Hox-based transcription factor complex.

The approach taken is multidisciplinary in nature, using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics to set the molecular landscape, biochemistry, structural biology and molecular modelling to grasp the atomic details of the mechanisms, and molecular genetics to probe in vivo function. Integration of this novel knowledge should improve our picture of Hox protein specificity and diversity and by extension provide decisive clues on how specificity and diversity of genome regulation is achieved. This is central to understand the bases for gene regulation during development and evolution, and for manipulating transcription factor activity and gene regulation in stem cell and disease biology.

Schema showing the multidisciplinary approach of gene regulation by the Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML

A multidisciplinary approach of gene regulation.


Selected publications


The Hox proteins Ubx and AbdA collaborate with the transcription pausing factor M1BP to regulate gene transcription.

Zouaz A, Auradkar A, Delfini MC, Macchi M, Barthez M, Ela Akoa S, Bastianelli L, Xie G, Deng WM, Levine SS, Graba Y, Saurin AJ.
EMBO J. 2017 Oct 2;36(19):2887-2906. doi: 10.15252/embj.201695751. PMID: 28871058


Hox functional diversity: Novel insights from flexible motif folding and plastic protein interaction

Ortiz-Lombardia M, Foos N, Maurel-Zaffran C, Saurin AJ, Graba Y.
Bioessays. 2017 Apr;39(4). doi: 10.1002/bies.201600246. PMID: 28092121


Hox Service Warranty Extends to Adult Bone Repair.

Saurin AJ, Delfini MC, Graba Y
Dev Cell. 2016 Dec 19;39(6):627-629. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.12.007. PMID: 27997818


Modular activation of Rho1 by GPCR signalling imparts polarized myosin II activation during morphogenesis

Kerridge S, Munjal A, Philippe JM, Jha A, de las Bayonas AG, Saurin AJ, Lecuit T.
Nat Cell Biol. 2016 Mar;18(3):261-70. doi: 10.1038/ncb3302. PMID: 26780298


Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition).

Klionsky et al.
Autophagy. 2016;12(1):1-222. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356. PMID: 26799652


A survey of conservation of sea spider and Drosophila Hox protein activities.

Saadaoui M, Litim-Mecheri I, Macchi M, Graba Y, Maurel-Zaffran C.
Mech Dev. 2015 Nov;138 Pt 2:73-86. PMID: 26238019


Correlation between low FAT1 expression and early affected muscle in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

Mariot V, Roche S, Hourdé C, Portilho D, Sacconi S, Puppo F, Duguez S, Rameau P, Caruso N, Delezoide AL, Desnuelle C, Bessières B, Collardeau S, Feasson L, Maisonobe T, Magdinier F, Helmbacher F, Butler-Browne G, Mouly V, Dumonceaux J.
Ann Neurol. 2015 Sep;78(3):387-400. doi: 10.1002/ana.24446. PMID: 26018399


Cellular and molecular insights into Hox protein action.

Rezsohazy R, Saurin AJ, Maurel-Zaffran C, Graba Y.
Development. 2015 Apr 1;142(7):1212-27. PMID: 25804734


A flexible extension of the Drosophila ultrabithorax homeodomain defines a novel Hox/PBC interaction mode.

Foos N, Maurel-Zaffran C, Maté MJ, Vincentelli R, Hainaut M, Berenger H, Pradel J, Saurin AJ, Ortiz-Lombardía M, Graba Y.
Structure. 2015 Feb 3;23(2):270-9. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2014.12.011. PMID: 25651060


Autophagy : Moving Benchside Promises to Patient Bedsides.

Belaid A, Ndiaye PD, Filippakis H, Roux J, Rottinger E, Graba Y, Brest P, Hofman P, Mograbi B.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2015;15(8):684-702. PMID: 26452384


Drosophila Hox transcription factors access the RNA Polymerase II machinery through direct homeodomain binding to a conserved motif of Mediator subunit Med19

Boube M, Hudry B, Immarigeon C, Carrier Y, Bernat-Fabre S, Merabet S, Graba Y, Bourbon HM, Cribbs DL.
PLoS Genet. 2014 May 1;10(5):e1004303. PMID: 24786462


Hox genes : a fertile interplay of concepts and methods.

Graba Y. and Rezsohazy R.
Methods Mol Biol., 1196, Editors. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1242-1-18.


Hox proteins mediate developmental and environmental control of autophagy.

Banreti A, Hudry B, Sass M, Saurin AJ, Graba Y.
Dev Cell. 2014 Jan 13;28(1):56-69. PMID: 24389064


Distinct genetic requirements for BX-C mediated specification of abdominal denticles.

Sambrani N, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Dev Dyn. 2013 Oct 24. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24081. PMID: 24155218


The emerging role of acetylation in the regulation of autophagy.

Bánréti A, Sass M, Graba Y.
Autophagy. 2013 Jun 1;9(6):819-29. PMID: 23466676


Distinct molecular strategies for Hox-mediated limb suppression in Drosophila: from cooperativity to dispensability/antagonism in TALE partnership.

Sambrani N, Hudry B, Zouaz A, Maurel-Zaffran C, Merabet S and Graba Y.
PLoS Genet. 2013;9(3):e1003307. PMID: 23505377


Antagonism Versus Cooperativity with TALE Cofactors at the Base of the Functional Diversification of Hox Protein Function.

Rivas ML, Espinosa-Vázquez JM, Sambrani N, Greig S, Merabet S,Graba Y, Castelli-Gair Hombría J.
PLoS Genet. 2013 Feb;9(2):e1003252. PMID: 23408901


Hox proteins display a common and ancestral ability to diversify their interaction mode with the PBC class cofactors.

Hudry B, Remacle S, Delfini MC, Rezsohazy R, Graba Y, Merabet S.
PLoS Biol. 2012;10(6):e1001351. PMID: 22745600


The MYST-containing protein Chameau is required for proper sensory organ specification during Drosophila thorax morphogenesis.

Hainaut M, Sagnier T, Berenger H, Pradel J, Graba Y, Miotto B.
PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32882. PMID: 22412942


Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains.

Merabet S, Litim-Mecheri I, Karlsson D, Dixit R, Saadaoui M, Monier B, Brun C, Thor S, Vijayraghavan K, Perrin L, Pradel J, Graba Y.
PLoS Genet. 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002302. PMID: 22046139


Characterisation of genome-wide PLZF/RARA target genes.

Spicuglia S, Vincent-Fabert C, Benoukraf T, Tibéri G, Saurin AJ, Zacarias-Cabeza J, Grimwade D, Mills K, Calmels B, Bertucci F, Sieweke M, Ferrier P,Duprez E.
PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24176. PMID: 21949697


Selection of distinct Hox-Extradenticle interaction modes fine-tunes Hox protein activity.

Saadaoui M, Merabet S, Litim-Mecheri I, Arbeille E, Sambrani N, Damen W, Brena C, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 8;108(6):2276-81. PMID: 21262810


Visualization of protein interactions in living Drosophila embryos by the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay.

Hudry B, Viala S, Graba Y, Merabet S.
BMC Biol. 2011 Jan 28;9:5. PMID: 21276241


Control of DNA replication: a new facet of Hox proteins?

Miotto B, Graba Y.
Bioessays. 2010 Sep;32(9):800-7. PMID: 20730947


Reiterative use of signalling pathways controls multiple cellular events during Drosophila posterior spiracle organogenesis.

Maurel-Zaffran C, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Dev Biol. 2010 Jul 1;343(1-2):18-27. PMID: 20403348


Regulation of Hox activity: insights from protein motifs.

Merabet S, Sambrani N, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;689:3-16. PMID: 20795319


The PRC1 Polycomb group complex interacts with PLZF/RARA to mediate leukemic transformation

Boukarabila H, Saurin AJ, Batsché E, Mossadegh N, van Lohuizen M, Otte AP, Pradel J, Muchardt C, Sieweke M, Duprez E.
Genes Dev. 2009 May 15;23(10):1195-206. doi: 10.1101/gad.512009. PMID: 19451220


Classification of sequence signatures: a guide to Hox protein function.

Merabet S, Hudry B, Saadaoui M, Graba Y.
Bioessays. 2009 May;31(5):500-11. PMID: 19334006


Reptin and Pontin function antagonistically with PcG and TrxG complexes to mediate Hox gene control.

Diop SB, Bertaux K, Vasanthi D, Sarkeshik A, Goirand B, Aragnol D, Tolwinski NS, Cole MD, Pradel J, Yates JR 3rd, Mishra RK, Graba Y, Saurin AJ.
EMBO Rep. 2008 Mar;9(3):260-6. PMID: 18259215


A unique Extradenticle recruitment mode in the Drosophila Hox protein Ultrabithorax.

Merabet S, Saadaoui M, Sambrani N, Hudry B, Pradel J, Affolter M,Graba Y.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23;104(43):16946-51. PMID: 17942685


Chameau HAT and DRpd3 HDAC function as antagonistic cofactors of JNK/AP-1-dependent transcription during Drosophila metamorphosis.

Miotto B, Sagnier T, Berenger H, Bohmann D, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Genes Dev. 2006 Jan 1;20(1):101-12. PMID: 16391236


Getting a molecular grasp on Hox contextual activity.

Merabet S, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Trends Genet. 2005 Sep;21(9):477-80. PMID: 16023254


Hox-controlled reorganisation of intrasegmental patterning cues underlies Drosophila posterior spiracle organogenesis.

Merabet S, Hombria JC, Hu N, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Development. 2005 Jul;132(13):3093-102. PMID: 15930099


Tgfbeta signaling acts on a Hox response element to confer specificity and diversity to Hox protein function.

Grienenberger A, Merabet S, Manak J, Iltis I, Fabre A, Bérenger H, Scott MP, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Development. 2003 Nov;130(22):5445-55. PMID: 14507783


The hexapeptide and linker regions of the AbdA Hox protein regulate its activating and repressive functions.

Merabet S, Kambris Z, Capovilla M, Bérenger H, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Dev Cell. 2003 May;4(5):761-8. PMID: 12737810


Hox genes and apoptosis, from architecture to sculpture.

Pradel J, Graba Y, Aragnol D.
Med Sci (Paris). 2003 Mar;19(3):271-3. PMID: 12836405


A green fluorescent protein reporter genetic screen that identifies modifiers of Hox gene function in the Drosophila embryo.

Merabet S, Catala F, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Genetics. 2002 Sep;162(1):189-202. PMID: 12242233


The MYST domain acetyltransferase Chameau functions in epigenetic mechanisms of transcriptional repression.

Grienenberger A, Miotto B, Sagnier T, Cavalli G, Schramke V, Geli V, Mariol MC, Berenger H, Graba Y, Pradel J.
Curr Biol. 2002 Apr 30;12(9):762-6. PMID: 12007422


DWnt4 and wingless elicit similar cellular responses during imaginal development.

Gieseler K, Wilder E, Mariol MC, Buratovitch M, Bérenger H, Graba Y, Pradel J.
Dev Biol. 2001 Apr 15;232(2):339-50. PMID: 11401396


Dynamic expression of d-CdGAPr, a novel Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding a GTPase activating protein.

Sagnier T, Grienenberger A, Mariol M, Bérenger H, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Mech Dev. 2000 Jun;94(1-2):267-70. PMID: 10842085


Distinct hox protein sequences determine specificity in different tissues.

Chauvet S, Merabet S, Bilder D, Scott MP, Pradel J, Graba Y.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11;97(8):4064-9. PMID: 10737765


Plasticity versus specificity in RTK signalling modalities for distinct biological outcomes in motor neurons

Caruso N, Herberth B, Lamballe F, Arce-Gorvel V, Maina F, Helmbacher F.
BMC Biol. 2014 Aug 14;12(1):56. PMID: 25124859


TAFA4, a Chemokine-like Protein, Modulates Injury-Induced Mechanical and Chemical Pain Hypersensitivity in Mice.

Delfini MC, Mantilleri A, Gaillard S, Hao J, Reynders A, Malapert P, Alonso S, François A, Barrere C, Seal R, Landry M, Eschallier A, Alloui A, Bourinet E, Delmas P, Le Feuvre Y, Moqrich A.
Cell Rep. 2013 Oct 31;5(2):378-88. PMID: 24139797


Deregulation of the Protocadherin Gene FAT1 Alters Muscle Shapes: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy.

Caruso N, Herberth B, Bartoli M, Puppo F, Dumonceaux J, Zimmermann A, Denadai S, Lebossé M, Roche S, Geng L, Magdinier F, Attarian S, Bernard R, Maina F, Levy N, Helmbacher F.
PLoS Genet. 2013 Jun;9(6):e1003550. PMID: 23785297


Pool-specific regulation of motor neuron survival by neurotrophic support.

Lamballe F, Genestine M, Caruso N, Arce V, Richelme S, Helmbacher F*, Maina F*. (* co-senior authors)
J Neurosci. 2011 Aug 3;31(31):11144-58. PMID: 21813676


Stable, conditional, and muscle-fiber-specific expression of electroporated transgenes in chick limb muscle cells

Wang H, Bonnet A, Delfini MC, Kawakami K, Takahashi Y, Duprez D.
Dev Dyn. 2011 May;240(5):1223-32. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.22498. PMID: 21509896


The timing of emergence of muscle progenitors is controlled by an FGF/ERK/SNAIL1 pathway

Delfini MC, De La Celle M, Gros J, Serralbo O, Marics I, Seux M, Scaal M, Marcelle C.
Dev Biol. 2009 Sep 15;333(2):229-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.05.544. PMID: 19445915


Telomeric trans-silencing in Drosophila melanogaster: tissue specificity, development and functional interactions between non-homologous telomeres

Josse T, Maurel-Zaffran C, de Vanssay A, Teysset L, Todeschini AL, Delmarre V, Chaminade N, Anxolabéhère D, Ronsseray S.
PLoS One. 2008 Sep 22;3(9):e3249. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003249. PMID: 18813361


A molecular clock operates during chick autopod proximal-distal outgrowth

Pascoal S, Carvalho CR, Rodriguez-León J, Delfini MC, Duprez D, Thorsteinsdóttir S, Palmeirim I.
J Mol Biol. 2007 Apr 27;368(2):303-9. PMID: 17346744


Liprin-alpha has LAR-independent functions in R7 photoreceptor axon targeting.

Hofmeyer K, Maurel-Zaffran C, Sink H, Treisman JE.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 1;103(31):11595-600. PMID: 16864797


Control of the segmentation process by graded MAPK/ERK activation in the chick embryo

Delfini MC, Dubrulle J, Malapert P, Chal J, Pourquié O.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 9;102(32):11343-8. PMID: 16055560


Ectopic Myf5 or MyoD prevents the neuronal differentiation program in addition to inducing skeletal muscle differentiation, in the chick neural tube

Delfini MC, Duprez D.
Development. 2004 Feb;131(4):713-23. PMID: 14724123


Reptin and pontin antagonistically regulate heart growth in zebrafish embryos.

Rottbauer W, Saurin AJ, Lickert H, Shen X, Burns CG, Wo ZG, Kemler R, Kingston R, Wu C, Fishman M.
Cell. 2002 Nov 27;111(5):661-72. PMID: 12464178


Direct imaging of human SWI/SNF-remodeled mono- and polynucleosomes by atomic force microscopy employing carbon nanotube tips

Schnitzler GR, Cheung CL, Hafner JH, Saurin AJ, Kingston RE, Lieber CM.
Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Dec;21(24):8504-11.


Cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous functions of LAR in R7 photoreceptor axon targeting.

Maurel-Zaffran C, Suzuki T, Gahmon G, Treisman JE, Dickson BJ.
Neuron. 2001 Oct 25;32(2):225-35. PMID: 11683993


Reconstitution of a functional core polycomb repressive complex.

Francis NJ, Saurin AJ, Shao Z, Kingston RE.
Mol Cell. 2001 Sep;8(3):545-56.


A Drosophila Polycomb group complex includes Zeste and dTAFII proteins

Saurin AJ, Shao Z, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Kingston RE.
Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):655-60. PMID: 11493925


Purification and characterization of mSin3A-containing Brg1 and hBrm chromatin remodeling complexes.

Sif S, Saurin AJ, Imbalzano AN, Kingston RE.
Genes Dev. 2001 Mar 1;15(5):603-18. PMID: 11238380


Notch signalling acts in postmitotic avian myogenic cells to control MyoD activation

Hirsinger E, Malapert P, Dubrulle J, Delfini MC, Duprez D, Henrique D, Ish-Horowicz D, Pourquié O.
Development. 2001 Jan;128(1):107-16. PMID: 11092816


Delta 1-activated notch inhibits muscle differentiation without affecting Myf5 and Pax3 expression in chick limb myogenesis

Delfini MC, Hirsinger E, Pourquié O, Duprez D.
Development. 2000 Dec;127(23):5213-24. PMID: 11060246


HPC3 is a new human polycomb orthologue that interacts and associates with RING1 and Bmi1 and has transcriptional repression properties

Bárdos JI, Saurin AJ, Tissot C, Duprez E, Freemont PS.
J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 15;275(37):28785-92. PMID: 10825164


Paraxis is expressed in myoblasts during their migration and proliferation in the chick limb bud

Mech Dev. 2000 Sep;96(2):247-51. PMID: 10960793


dlarp, a new candidate Hox target in Drosophila whose orthologue in mouse is expressed at sites of epithelium/mesenchymal interactions

Chauvet S, Maurel-Zaffran C, Miassod R, Jullien N, Pradel J, Aragnol D.
Dev Dyn. 2000 Jul;218(3):401-13. PMID: 10878606


The Ste20 kinase misshapen regulates both photoreceptor axon targeting and dorsal closure, acting downstream of distinct signals

Su YC, Maurel-Zaffran C, Treisman JE, Skolnik EY.
Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jul;20(13):4736-44. PMID: 10848599


pannier acts upstream of wingless to direct dorsal eye disc development in Drosophila

Maurel-Zaffran C, Treisman JE.
Development. 2000 Mar;127(5):1007-16. PMID: 10662640


nessy, an evolutionary conserved gene controlled by Hox proteins during Drosophila embryogenesis

Maurel-Zaffran C, Chauvet S, Jullien N, Miassod R, Pradel J, Aragnol D.
Mech Dev. 1999 Aug;86(1-2):159-63. PMID: 10446276


Antagonist activity of DWnt-4 and wingless in the Drosophila embryonic ventral ectoderm and in heterologous Xenopus assays.

Gieseler K, Graba Y, Mariol MC, Wilder EL, Martinez-Arias A, Lemaire P, Pradel J.
Mech Dev. 1999 Jul;85(1-2):123-31. PMID: 10415353


SSX and the synovial-sarcoma-specific chimaeric protein SYT-SSX co-localize with the human Polycomb group complex.

Soulez M, Saurin AJ, Freemont PS, Knight JC.
Oncogene. 1999 Apr 29;18(17):2739-46. PMID: 10348348


Identification of the t(15;17) in AML FAB types other than M3: evaluation of the role of molecular screening for the PML/RARalpha rearrangement in newly diagnosed AML. The Medical Research Council (MRC) Adult Leukaemia Working Party

Allford S, Grimwade D, Langabeer S, Duprez E, Saurin A, Chatters S, Walker H, Roberts P, Rogers J, Bain B, Patterson K, McKernan A, Freemont P, Solomon E, Burnett A, Goldstone A, Linch D.
Br J Haematol. 1999 Apr;105(1):198-207. PMID: 10233384


SUMO-1 modification of the acute promyelocytic leukaemia protein PML: implications for nuclear localisation

Duprez E, Saurin AJ, Desterro JM, Lallemand-Breitenbach V, Howe K, Boddy MN, Solomon E, de Thé H, Hay RT, Freemont PS.
J Cell Sci. 1999 Feb;112 ( Pt 3):381-93.


The human polycomb group complex associates with pericentromeric heterochromatin to form a novel nuclear domain

Saurin AJ, Shiels C, Williamson J, Satijn DP, Otte AP, Sheer D, Freemont PS.
J Cell Biol. 1998 Aug 24;142(4):887-98. PMID: 9722603


Wnt and TGFbeta signals subdivide the AbdA Hox domain during Drosophila mesoderm patterning.

Bilder D, Graba Y, Scott MP.
Development. 1998 May;125(9):1781-90. PMID: 9521915


RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor.

Satijn DP, Gunster MJ, van der Vlag J, Hamer KM, Schul W, Alkema MJ, Saurin AJ, Freemont PS, van Driel R, Otte AP.
Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Jul;17(7):4105-13. PMID: 9199346


Drosophila Hox complex downstream targets and the function of homeotic genes.

Graba Y, Aragnol D, Pradel J.
Bioessays. 1997 May;19(5):379-88. PMID: 9174403


Hox genes in evolution: protein surfaces and paralog groups.

Sharkey M, Graba Y, Scott MP.
Trends Genet. 1997 Apr;13(4):145-51. PMID: 9097725


The Drosophila teashirt homeotic protein is a DNA-binding protein and modulo, a HOM-C regulated modifier of variegation, is a likely candidate for being a direct target gene.

Alexandre E, Graba Y, Fasano L, Gallet A, Perrin L, De Zulueta P, Pradel J, Kerridge S, Jacq B.
Mech Dev. 1996 Oct;59(2):191-204. PMID: 8951796


Does this have a familiar RING?

Saurin AJ, Borden KL, Boddy MN, Freemont PS.
Trends Biochem Sci. 1996 Jun;21(6):208-14. PMID: 8744354


Inhibition of mitogen-induced DNA synthesis by bafilomycin A1 in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts

Saurin AJ, Hamlett J, Clague MJ, Pennington SR.
Biochem J. 1996 Jan 1;313 ( Pt 1):65-70. PMID: 8546711


wingless and DWnt4, 2 Drosophila Wnt genes, have related expression, regulation and function during the embryonic development.

Gieseler K, Mariol MC, Sagnier T, Graba Y, Pradel J.
C R Acad Sci III. 1995 Nov;318(11):1101-10. PMID: 8574787


Genetic and molecular analysis of terminal deletions of chromosome 3R of Drosophila melanogaster.

Laurenti P, Graba Y, Rosset R, Pradel J.
Gene. 1995 Mar 10;154(2):177-81. PMID: 7890161


DWnt-4, a novel Drosophila Wnt gene acts downstream of homeotic complex genes in the visceral mesoderm.

Graba Y, Gieseler K, Aragnol D, Laurenti P, Mariol MC, Berenger H, Sagnier T, Pradel J.
Development. 1995 Jan;121(1):209-18. PMID: 7867502


The modifier of variegation modulo gene acts downstream of dorsoventral and HOM-C genes and is required for morphogenesis in Drosophila.

Graba Y, Laurenti P, Perrin L, Aragnol D, Pradel J.
Dev Biol. 1994 Dec;166(2):704-15. PMID: 7813788


A quick method for immunoscreening recombinant bacterial colonies.

Laurenti P, Graba Y, Pradel J.
Trends Genet. 1993 Oct;9(10):335-6. PMID: 8273145


Cell lineage-specific expression of modulo, a dose-dependent modifier of variegation in Drosophila.

Garzino V, Pereira A, Laurenti P, Graba Y, Levis RW, Le Parco Y, Pradel J.
EMBO J. 1992 Dec;11(12):4471-9. PMID: 1425581


Homeotic control in Drosophila; the scabrous gene is an in vivo target of Ultrabithorax proteins.

Graba Y, Aragnol D, Laurenti P, Garzino V, Charmot D, Berenger H, Pradel J.
EMBO J. 1992 Sep;11(9):3375-84. PMID: 1505521


  • C. Cambillau / M. Ortiz Lombardia, AFMB
  • D. Cribbs, CBD, Toulouse
  • J. Castelli-Gair, CABD, Sevilla
  • J. R. Yates, Scripps Research Institute
  • K. VijayRhagavan, NCBC, Bangalore
  • R. Mishra, CCMB, India


CEFIPRA funding for Y. Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML

ANR funding for Y. Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML


ARC funding for Y. Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML

FRM funding for Y.Graba Team from IBDM, IBDML

Members more

Nathalie Caruso Marie-claire Delfini Farcot Corinne Maurel Zaffran Axelle Wilmerding
Andrew Saurin
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Andrew Saurin


Andrew Saurin obtained his PhD from King’s College, University of London, and did his postdoc at Harvard University. Andrew joined the team in 2002 on a CNRS permanent research position. Background and main expertise: Gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms, protein and chromatin complex biochemistry.

Yacine Graba
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Yacine Graba


Nathalie Caruso
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Nathalie Caruso

Technical staff

Marie-claire Delfini Farcot
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Marie-claire Delfini Farcot


Corinne Maurel Zaffran
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Corinne Maurel Zaffran

University lecturer

Corinne Maurel-Zaffran obtained her PhD in 1997 from the University of Aix-Marseille II. Following two post docs at New York University Medical center and University of Paris 6, Corinne joined the team in September 2003 as assistant Professor and is teaching genetics and molecular biology at the bachelor and master levels. Background and main expertise: developmental gene regulation, drosophila molecular genetics and imaging.

Axelle Wilmerding
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Axelle Wilmerding

PhD student


  • A. Zouaz, PhD
  • S. Merabet, CR CNRS
  • M. Hainaut, PhD
  • I. Litim, PhD 
  • M. Saadaoui, PhD 
  • N. Sambrani, PhD
  • B. Hudry, PhD
  • B. Miotto, PhD
  • A. Grienenberger, PhD
  • R. Rodriguez, Post doc
  • K. Bertaux, Post doc
  • S. Viala, CDD


Animal model organism
Biological process studied
  • Gene regulation by transcription factors during development
Biological techniques
  • Molecular genetics
  • Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • Biochemistry
  • Bioinformatics
  • Structural characterization and molecular modeling
Medical applications
  • Interfering with transcription factor responsible for pathologies